Fracking, or hydrofracking, which is short for hydraulic fracturing, is a common but controversial practice among companies that drill underground for oil and natural gas. List of additives for hydraulic fracturing wikipedia. This book presents both sides of a very controversial subject in todays media. Though highly effective, the processwhich fractures. This fracking fluid contains a mixture of water, sand, and 510 chemicals ranging in toxicity. History of well fracturing 1860s fracturing can be traced to the 1860s when nitroglycerin was first used to stimulate shallow wells in pennsylvania, new york, kentucky, and west virginia.
Wastewater disposal wells, fracking, and environmental. Dit gebeurt door water, zand en chemicalien onder hoge druk 400 tot bar in een. The fracking fluid goes down some 5,000 feet to where its used to help break rock apart releasing the natural gas, and then most of the fluid is pumped back out again and carted away where its treated at a regulated and approved facility. Each of these components is critical to the development of the. The process involves the highpressure injection of fracking fluid primarily water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of thickening agents into a wellbore. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology sciencedirect. For the fluid that stays behind, its down some 5,000 feet. Many of the components and processes used to manufacture the. Many of the components and processes used to manufacture. Fracking, ook wel fraccing of hydraulic fracturing letterlijk. Duke doctoral student nathaniel warner samples well water in pennsylvania.
The water used for hydraulic fracturing is a critical component of the fluid. Next, a mechanism called a packer is lowered into the well and down about 40 feet beyond the end of. Because fracking is an oilfield service with a small number of suppliers and small number of buyers, most of the state of the art is trade secret. The remaining 12% is made up of a combination of chemicals, some of which are very toxic. Can water well hydrofracking improve my water supply. In order to drill for natural gas, drilling companies add chemicals to water and drill, using the method of hydraulic fracturing or hydrofracking. Median maximum fluid concentrations of water by source, summarized by state 58. Many times the failure of a particular fracturing treatment is blamed on the fluid because that is a major unknown from the design engineers viewpoint. Water contamination and the impact that hydraulic fracturing has on water. What chemicals are used fracfocus chemical disclosure. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing. List of 78 chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluid in. He is the author of five books, including the ripple effect.
The shallow hydraulic fracturing is a potential problem because you dont need a problem with well integrity to have chemicals migrate into drinking water, he said. This process makes mining for natural gas in dense shale more economically possible. The entire hydrofracking process takes approximately 46 hours and you will have running water that same day. In fracking, drillers inject millions of gallons of water, sand, salts and chemicalsall too often toxic chemicals and human carcinogens such as benzeneinto shale deposits or other subsurface rock formations at. It covers the technology and methods used in hydraulic fracturing in easytounderstand language, for the engineer and layperson alike, presenting the environmental effects of hydraulic fracturing. The process involves the high pressure injection of fracking fluid primarily. Hydrochloric acid hcl is the single largest liquid component used in a fracturing fluid aside from water. The epa identified 692 unique ingredients among the.
These chemicals can lead to several health problems such as skin, eye, and sensory organ problems, respiratory problems, gastrointestinal or liver problems, brain and nervous system problems, and cardiovascular system problems. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a drilling method used to extract petroleum oil or natural gas from deep in the earth. June 2, 2014 christopher boyd hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as fracking, is the process of injecting water and other chemicals deep into the ground to create cracks or fissures and release fuel that can then be pumped out in wells built in the area. Fluids used for hydraulic fracturing purposes are called fracking fluids or fracturing fluids. A wide variety of chemical additives are used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. In the fracking process, cracks in and below the earths surface are opened and widened by injecting water, chemicals, and sand at. The process involves the highpressure injection of fracking fluid primarily. Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique involving the fracturing of bedrock formations by a pressurized liquid.
They are injected into drilled boreholes under high pressure, in order to create targeted fractures and fissures in gasbearing bedrock. Wastewater disposal is an issue in hydrofracking the new. Although this has been practiced for decades, this process still faces a lot of contentions between supporters and critics. Produced water can contain a complex mixture of metals, salts and other chemicals, partly composed of the original fracturing fluid components. The video above is from the march 20 ipad edition of national geographic magazine. This is accomplished by drilling down to the rock layer in order to crack it open.
The scientists collected and analyzed water samples from 68 private groundwater wells across five counties in northeastern pennsylvania and new york. Samples of the hydraulic fracturing fluid prior to the addition of proppant had been analyzed as well as time series samples of produced formation water for a natural gas well. Fracking fluid is a mixture of water, sand and chemicals. What is fracking, hydrofracking or hydraulic fracturing. Table 1 provides a summary of the additives, their main compounds, the reason the additive is used in a hydraulic fracturing fluid, and some of the other common uses for these compounds. Throughout history, waste disposal has often resulted in environmental pollution and, consequently, harm to human health. Generally, the components that make up crosslinked fracturing fluids include a. Books a legal resource guide for information relating to hydrofracking including primary and secondary source materials. The high pressure and intensity of the fracking fluid rushes into the shale layers, cracks, and crevices. Although there are dozens to hundreds of chemicals which could be used as additives, there are a limited number which are routinely used in hydraulic fracturing. It works by injecting fracking fluid water with chemicals added at high.
Although the hydraulic fracturing industry may have a number of compounds that can be used in a hydraulic fracturing fluid, any single fracturing job would only use a few of the available additives. Effect of hydrofracking fluid on colloid transport in the. Constantly in the news and the subject of much public debate, fracking, as it is known for short, is one of the most promising yet controversial methods of extracting natural gas and oil. Hydrofracking risk assessment executive summary ufz. Hydraulic fracturing is expanding rapidly in the us to meet increasing energy demand and requires high volumes of hydrofracking fluid to displace natural gas from shale. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing fluid data from the. Fracking companies keep 10% of chemicals secret, epa says.
In the hydrofracking process, approximately 1040% of the injected fracking fluids surge back to the surface within a twoweek period as flowback fluid. Hydraulic fracturing fluids composition and additives. It is pumped underground under great pressure to fracture gasbearing shale to free natural gas. Hydrofracking, which is also referred to as hydrofracturing, is a process that can be used to increase the flow of water into a well. Today, 90 percent of natural gas wells use fracking. An analysis of advocacy against hydraulic fracturing in new york and pennsylvania by leia schmidt1 this paper examines the reaction of two neighboring states, new york and pennsylvania, to a new natural gas extraction technique, highvolume horizontal hydraulic fracturing hydrofracking. Hydrofracking is a practice used to extract natural gas or. What everyone needs to know prudhomme, alex on amazon. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gasses has become widespread in the united states, but the. While 28 states do have chemical disclosure laws on the books, companies do not disclose all. As new york state environmental regulators finetune proposed rules governing a controversial naturalgas extraction process, wastewater disposal has emerged as a challenging issue. Hydrofracking is easier to control and has a higher success rate. Hydraulic fracturing also called fracking, fracing, hydrofracking, fraccing, fracing, and hydrofracturing is a well stimulation technique involving the fracturing of bedrock formations by a pressurized liquid.
The materials and chemistry used to manufacture hydraulic fracture fluids are often confusing and difficult for the practicing hydraulic fracturing engineer to understand and optimize. Comparison of hydraulic fracturing fluids composition with. The main concern with this is the fact that the drills can hit water sources and contaminate our water. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals. Its composition varies but basically it contains 9899% water and sand. Though highly effective, the processwhich fractures rock with pressurized fluidhas been criticized for polluting land, air, and water, and endangering human health. By fracking the rock layer that is sometimes thousands of feet below the surface, oil and natural gas reserves can be accessed. The economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them. How hydraulic fracturing works national geographic society. Feed high pressured fracking fluid into the well via a pumping tank. Chemical composition of fracking wastewater european commission.
The differences between additives for hydraulic fracturing in different countries are the type of chemicals used hazardous, nonhazardous, the disclosure of chemicals and the composition of fracturing fluid. In 2010, halliburton announced the creation of food additive based hydraulic fracturing fluid in response to calls for transparency and demand for a more environmentally friendly. Water quality health impact assessment of shale gas extraction. The process begins with measuring the depth of the well and the water level. A major issue of course is that some of the fracking solutions contents, which.
About 88 percent of fracking fluid is water, another 10 percent is sand and 2 percent or less is chemicals, the data show. Chemical use in hydraulic fracturing fracfocus chemical. Fracking can contaminate drinking water scientific american. The vast majority of fracturing fluids used today use water as the base fluid. As previously noted, chemicals perform many functions in a hydraulic fracturing job. Accidental spills and deliberate land application of hydrofracking fluids, which return to the surface during hydrofracking, are common causes of environmental contamination. Generally, the components that make up crosslinked fracturing fluids include a polymer, buffer, gel stabilizer or breaker and a crosslinker. In response to public interest in the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids, the ground water protection council gwpc. So about these chemicals there are more than 600 chemicals used in hydrofracking fluid. Hydraulic fracturing in new york state steven cohen and courtney small introduction hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is an important sustainability management issue in the united states.
Slick water hydraulic fracturing, also known as hydrofracking, is a new development in natural gas extraction. The following is a list of the chemicals used most often. For example, the chart shown above, represents 12 additives used, covering the range of possible functions that could be built into a fracturing fluid. Science of hydrofracking a legal resource guide for information relating to hydrofracking including primary and secondary source materials, quick links, and database resources. Hydrofracking is the sometimes controversial process of extracting natural resources from beneath the surface of the soil. A study by duke university researchers has found high levels of leaked methane in well water collected near shalegas drilling and hydrofracking sites. Waste disposal is an enduring public health problem. Effect of hydrofracking fluid on colloid transport in the unsaturated.747 836 926 1012 1465 922 603 380 1419 1488 251 705 575 721 478 12 936 396 716 1063 1562 518 4 1289 500 1644 917 1637 281 677 1556 30 1199 451 1327 190 397 945 1378 599 1062 832 7 1095 1370