Map projection distorts reality a sphere is not a developable solid. The miller cylindrical projection is derived from the mercator projection. Map scale distortion of a secant cylindrical projection sf 1 along secant lines. Feb 21, 2011 an overview of different map projections.
The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of esri. The sketches present stereographic and cylindrical map projections and they pose some interesting challenges for doing them with a 2d drawing package pgftikz. A map is a projection of data usually from the real earth. Each rectangular grid cell has the same size, shape, and area. A geographic coordinate systems pdf file which contains lists of supported gcs and vcs. Understanding map projections landing page for kartoweb. It decreases the distortion in area, but the compromise introduces distortion in local shape and direction. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate that the mercator and transverse mercator projections are dissimilar. The beginning of the book contains substantial introductory information about map projection families and distortions. It is now known to have been used for the tunhuang star chart as early as 940 by chien lochih.
To make these representations, the cartographer must calculate geographic features so that they are represented as close to real as possible. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important. May 24, 2016 it discusses the general properties of map projections, aspects of mapping accuracy, and the different projection types. Cylindrical projection, in cartography, any of numerous map projections of the terrestrial sphere on the surface of a cylinder that is then unrolled as a plane. In this paper, we only show the derivation of plotting equations on a map for the mercator and.
Introducing the patterson cylindrical projection world political map a free, editable, beautiful and very large world map, which is available in pattersons cylindrical projection and in natural earth and natural earth ii as well. Since the mass of the earth is not uniform at all points, and the direction of gravity changes, the shape of the geoid is irregular. Here on theres an article about patterson cylindrical. Permission is granted to copy, distribute andor modify this document under the terms of the gnu free documentation license, version 1. For a complete analysis of the topic of map projections see reference 1. Cylindrical projection definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. This approximates the view of the earth from the sun on the winter solstice at noon in cambridge, ma.
Map projections of practical work in geography book chapter 4 map projections what is map projection. The transverse mercator was invented by johann lambert 172877 snyder, 1987, p. Read introducing the patterson cylindrical projection on. Secondly, conic map projections include the equidistant conic projection. Which developable surface to use for a projection depends on what region is to be mapped, its geographical extent, and the geometric properties that areas, boundaries, and routes need to have, given the purpose of the map. In cartography, the cylindrical equalarea projection is a family of cylindrical, equalarea map projections.
Map projections a map projection is used to portray all or part of the round earth on a flat surface. Jan 22, 2011 the usgs has posted a scanned file of john p. A cylindrical projection can be imagined in its simplest form as a cylinder that has been wrapped around a globe at the equator. The best known map projection is named for its inventor, gerardus mercator, who developed it in 1569. Patterson cylindrical projection compare map projections.
There are many different coordinate systems each one is better for certain purposes. The central parallel may be any line, but the traditional plate carree projection uses the equator. Originally, this and other map projections were achieved by a systematic method of drawing the earths meridians and latitudes on the. Map projections displaying the earth on 2 dimensional maps the world from space projection from esri, centered at 72 west and 23 south. Cylindrical projection definition of cylindrical projection. In this chapter, we will seek the answers of such essential questions. Types of cylindrical map projections you may know include the popular mercator projection, cassini, gausskruger, miller, behrmann, hobodyer, and gallpeters. This simple cylindrical projection converts the globe into a cartesian grid. Sep 25, 2015 this feature is not available right now.
Svg maps of the world with equirectangular projection. A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round earth on a flat surface. The way i found to do it was opening the file and looking for a suitable option. An album of map projections should enable read ers to sharpen and in some cases to correct their knowledge of the distances, directions, and relative areas of the world. The main idea is to draw in selected 3d planes and then project onto the canvas coordinate system with an appriopriate transformation. Which projection is most suitably used for which area. Cylindrical projection article about cylindrical projection.
Bipolar oblique conic conformal summary table general notes. Run the command by entering it in the matlab command window. Dec 10, 2016 a map projection describes how points on a plane, such as the pixels on your screen, correspond to points on the surface of the earth. In general, map projections fall into three standard classes. Projections with the name utm are not well supported i. Use this procedure to convert a file from its current map projection to a specified output projection. The result is that the two projections are almost identical near the equator. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Light comes from a point source at the center of the globe or, in some cases, from a filament running from pole to pole along the globes axis. In a typical cylindrical projection, one imagines the paper to be wrapped as a cylinder around the globe, tangent to it along the equator. Maps are a twodimensional representation of a threedimensional world. Map projection map projection is the method of transferring the graticule of. For maps of north america, powerworld supports a simple conic map projection which is described below. Lambert cylindrical equalarea for a spherical model of the earth.
Pdf in this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model. This example shows the island of menorca using the utm projection, zone 31n. At places on map where the surface is outside the globe, features appear larger than in reality and scale factor is greater than 1. The miller cylindrical projection is similar to the mercator projection except that the polar regions are not as areally distorted. A map projection is used to portray all or part of the. The mercator projection is named for gerardus mercator, who presented it for navigation in 1569. Arcview, pc arcinfo, arccad, and mapobjects are trademarks of environmental systems research institute, inc. The mercator projection is a cylindrical projection that was developed for. Sep 30, 2016 choosing a map projection the choice of map projection is made to give the most accurate possible representation of the geographic information, given that some distortion is inevitable. Notice that areas close to the equator have very little distortion. Projections formed by wrapping a cylinder around a globe.
The projection parameters these depend on the locality a datum, which defines the datum shift algorithm, the datum shift parameters, and the ellipsoid definition. The mercator projection is a cylindrical projection that was developed for navigation purposes. Cylindrical map projection article about cylindrical map. After watching this video, you will be able to explain what a map projection is, what a map scale is, and why they need to be carefully chosen when creating a map. It is a straight line drawn on mercators projection joining any. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity pull. The location shape size of the region to be mapped the theme or purpose of the map 37 38. Up to the end of 2019 i showed a wrong rendition of the patterson projection here having a false aspect ratio. It was first used in europe by erhard etzlaub in 1511. Without a coordinate system a map is just a drawing. Map projection is the method of transferring the graticule of latitude. A map projection produced by projecting the geographic meridians and parallels onto a cylinder which is tangent to the surface of a sphere, and then. In this section, by an elementary method, we show the cylindrical method that mercator used to map.
This procedure requires an input file, the output projection, and the resampling and warping method. Map projections cylindrical projection a cylindrical projection map is the most common type of map that we see. The mercator projection was used for its portrayal of direction and shape, so it was helpful to the sailors of that time. This projection file has the same base name as the shapefile and a. Find out information about cylindrical map projection. The mercator map projection is one of the most well known cylindrical map projections. Although there has been no dearth of valuable books describing a wide range of map projec tions, an album of map projections is the.
This projection is similar to the mercator projection except that the polar regions are not as areally distorted. A map derived from a secant projection surface has less overall distortion than a map from a tangent surface. Pdf introducing the patterson cylindrical projection researchgate. In cartography, a map projection is a way to flatten a globes surface into a plane in order to make a map. The geoid is defined as the surface of the earths gravity field, which is approximately the same as mean sea level. Spacing between lines of latitude as they approach the poles is less than in the mercator projection. The following sections describe and illustrate how the cylindrical, conic, and azimuthal families of map projections are. Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. Stereographic and cylindrical map projections tikz example.
Pdf the equal earth map projection is a new equalarea pseudocylindrical projection for world maps. The term normal cylindrical projection is used to refer to any projection in which meridians are mapped to equally spaced vertical lines and circles of. Imagine placing the movie screen around the globe in a cylinder shape. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane. This procedure converts among many projections in envi classic. This is a summary of map projections that have articles of their own on wikipedia or that are otherwise notable. Pdf the patterson cylindrical, a new projection designed for generalpurpose mapmaking, is an. The best known transverse cylindrical projection is the transverse mercator. Manual by lev bugayevskiy and john snyder, ball state.
You clicked a link that corresponds to this matlab command. The projection that results is depicted in this image. In the case of shapefiles, this means a file containing the wellknown text wkt specification of the crs. The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of environmental systems. If the graticule of latitude and longitude are projected onto the cylinder and the cylinder unwrapped, then a gridlike pattern of straight lines of latitude and longitude would result.652 1275 538 1437 1127 1648 1110 1588 469 80 806 837 1633 882 585 5 820 496 1638 45 644 733 1537 765 1656 794 699 866 1414 1419 1099 1478 1180 140 93 1333 1027 1051 1391 706 1467 499 871 67 518 211